It also appears to inhibit the development of sperm or even restrict the mobility of the sperm. After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports,[citation needed] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in 1882. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool" (Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool"). Some su… [25] By the 15th century, Venice, Antwerp, and Haarlem were important ports for cotton trade, and the sale and transportation of cotton fabrics had become very profitable. This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices.[95]. In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture (see nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. Without knowing the diploid genomes, the euchromatic DNA sequences of AD genomes would co-assemble, and their repetitive elements would assemble independently into A and D sequences respectively. [73][74], Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton from plants not genetically modified and that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides. "[48], During the middle 20th century, employment in cotton farming fell, as machines began to replace laborers and the South's rural labor force dwindled during the World Wars. Some farmers rented the land and bore the production costs themselves. Cotton fabric has been found at Nimrud in Iraq (8th–7th centuries BCE), Arjan in Iran (late 7th–early 6th centuries BCE) and Kerameikos in Greece (5th century BCE). Vegetative branches primarily produce more stem and leaves. But—as some of you probably know—the trees that grow in these forests also provide us with many products we use in our everyday life. This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type (due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and in the Caribbean. The gin that Whitney manufactured (the Holmes design) reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. [7][8], The earliest evidence of the use of cotton in the Old World, dated to 5500 BC and preserved in copper beads, has been found at the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh, at the foot of the Bolan Pass in Balochistan, Pakistan. These curly fibers typically are less than 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) long. A salve made from the buds of a cottonwood tree is a great pain reliever for arthritis. The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the 1680s and the 1730s. This has led to an international dispute (see United States â€“ Brazil cotton dispute): On 27 September 2002, Brazil requested consultations with the US regarding prohibited and actionable subsidies provided to US producers, users and/or exporters of upland cotton, as well as legislation, regulations, statutory instruments and amendments thereto providing such subsidies (including export credits), grants, and any other assistance to the US producers, users and exporters of upland cotton. Genome-Wide Divergence, Haplotype Distribution and Population Demographic Histories for Gossypium Hirsutum and Gossypium Barbadense as Revealed by Genome–Anchored SNPs, Independent Domestication of Two Old World Cotton Species, Asymmetric Subgenome Selection and Cis-Regulatory Divergence During Cotton Domestication, Mapping of Fiber Quality Qtls Reveals Useful Variation and Footprints of Cotton Domestication Using Introgression Lines, Ph.D., Anthropology, University of California Riverside, M.A., Anthropology, University of California Riverside, Cotton is one of the earliest domesticated non-food crops, independently domesticated at least four different times in four different parts of the world.Â, The first cotton domesticate was from the wild tree form in Pakistan or Madagascar at least 6,000 years ago; the next oldest was domesticated in Mexico about 5,000 years ago.Â, Cotton processing, taking the cotton bolls and making them into fibers, is a global technique; spinning those fibers into strings for weaving was anciently accomplished by the use of spindle whorls in the New World and spinning wheels in the Old World.Â. [112], A number of large dictionaries were written in Arabic during medieval times. [30] The most important center of cotton production was the Bengal Subah province, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka. The cotton is turned into cloth in Lancashire. A less technical use of the term "cotton wool", in the UK and Ireland, is for the refined product known as "absorbent cotton" (or, often, just "cotton") in U.S. usage: fluffy cotton in sheets or balls used for medical, cosmetic, protective packaging, and many other practical purposes. Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. GM cotton acreage in India grew at a rapid rate, increasing from 50,000 hectares in 2002 to 10.6 million hectares in 2011. According to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, US paper currency is made up of 75% cotton and 25% linen. [22], The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century. The total international trade is estimated to be $12 billion. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool". Aztec kings often offered cotton products to noble visitors as gifts and to army leaders as payment. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee, is the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim for blue jeans; cambric, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Nylon, the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in 1936, followed by DuPont's acrylic in 1944. Depending upon the origin, the chemical composition of cotton is as follows:[109]. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. Colors applied to this yarn are noted for being more brilliant than colors applied to softer yarn. But too much vegetative growth siphons off valuable energy and food that ar… G. herbaceum is much less well-known than G. arboreum. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as 750 people did formerly.[35]. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans. During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empire, especially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South. Transportation Information Service of Germany, Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered Bt cotton, has improved the management of a number of pests such as cotton bollworm and pink bollworm). In Persian poets' poems, especially Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton ("panbe" in Persian). Searchable copies of nearly all of the main medieval Arabic dictionaries are online at, Frank Lawrence Owsley, "The Confederacy and King Cotton: A Study in Economic Coercion,", Dickerson, Dianne K.; Lane, Eric F. and Rodriguez, Dolores F. (October 1999). [69] The U.S. GM cotton crop was 4.0 million hectares in 2011 the second largest area in the world, the Chinese GM cotton crop was third largest by area with 3.9 million hectares and Pakistan had the fourth largest GM cotton crop area of 2.6 million hectares in 2011. [72] On 17 October 2018, the USDA deregulated GE low-gossypol cotton. [87] Not all products bearing the Pima name are made with the finest cotton: American-grown ELS Pima cotton is trademarked as Supima cotton. If left alone and not harvested/stalks cut, cotton will grow into a tree. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. Wild cotton is photo-period sensitive; in other words, the plant begins to germinate when the day length reaches a certain point. Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries. Common throughout the tropics, the kapok is native to the New World and to Africa and was … Aksumite King Ezana boasted in his inscription that he destroyed large cotton plantations in Meroë during his conquest of the region. Cottonwood, several fast-growing trees of North America, members of the genus Populus, in the family Salicaceae, with triangular, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. The largest exporters of raw cotton are the United States, with sales of $4.9 billion, and Africa, with sales of $2.1 billion. [84] However, it is hydrophobic (does not absorb water easily), which makes it unfit for use in bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen). Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which landless farmers worked land owned by others in return for a share of the profits. Impressive Tree … [79], The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of rayon in France in the 1890s. The effort has generated Sanger reads of BACs, fosmids, and plasmids, as well as 454 reads. [31], The worm gear roller cotton gin, which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th–14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century,[32] and is still used in India through to the present day. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. With Selected Laundry Aids, "World Water Day: the cost of cotton in water-challenged India", "Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen", "Effects of Bt corn pollen on honey bees: emphasis on protocol development", "Seven-year glitch: Cornell warns that Chinese GM cotton farmers are losing money due to 'secondary' pests", GM crops good for environment, study finds, ISAAA Brief 43-2011: Executive Summary Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011, "Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (, Facts & Figures/Natural Resource Management Issues, Genetically modified plants: Global Cultivation Area Cotton, "USDA Announces Deregulation of GE Low-Gossypol Cotton", "Federal Register: Texas A&M AgriLife Research; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Cotton Genetically Engineered for Ultra-low Gossypol Levels in the Cottonseed", "What is the difference between cotton and linen? Mehrgarh, the earliest agricultural village in the Indus Valley, holds multiple lines of evidence of cotton seeds and fibers beginning about 6000 BP. Nearly all the cotton produced in the world today is the New World species Gossypium hirsutum, but before the 19th century, several species were grown on different continents. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. Forests give us so much—fresh air, clean water, wildlife and tranquil surroundings. Its genome is roughly twice that of G. raimondii. (Yes, air!) Fire hoses were once made of cotton. In the Central Andes, especially in the north and central coasts of Peru, cotton was part of a fishing economy and a marine-based lifestyle. Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and cannot be considered synthetic, but requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process, and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials. You pay shilling wages instead of Indian pennies to your workers. However I disagree. Because Herodotus had written in his Histories, Book III, 106, that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub. In 1721, dissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic (exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton). The cloth is finally sold back to the kings and landlords of India who got the money to buy this expensive cloth out of the poor peasants of India who worked at seven cents a day. Cotton is grown in warm climates. Until mechanical cotton pickers were developed, cotton farmers needed additional labor to hand-pick cotton. The first clear evidence of domesticated Pima cotton comes from the Ancón-Chillón area of the central coast of Peru. Cottonwood trees shed cotton for several weeks from late spring to early summer. The major cotton producing countries are United States, China, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Australia, Egypt, Argentina, Turkey, and Greece. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. [68] This was 69% of the worldwide total area planted in cotton. I can't see the tree, but they do come from that general area. In 1860 the slogan "Cotton is king" characterized the attitude of Southern leaders toward this monocrop in that Europe would support an independent Confederate States of America in 1861 in order to protect the supply of cotton it needed for its very large textile industry. Defoliatores include the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Kapok, (Ceiba pentandra), also called Java cotton, ceiba, or Java kapok, seed-hair fibre obtained from the fruit of the kapok tree or the kapok tree itself. [61][62][63] The gene coding for Bt toxin has been inserted into cotton, causing cotton, called Bt cotton, to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues. My g/F seems to think that cotton grows on those trees that have thorns on the trunk. [56][57], Cotton can also be cultivated to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibers. About 62% of the GM cotton grown from 1996 to 2011 was insect resistant, 24% stacked product and 14% herbicide resistant. Recent studies have compared bolls and cotton seeds retrieved from excavations in Guila Naquitz Cave, Oaxaca, with living examples of wild and cultivated G. hirsutum punctatum growing along the east coast of Mexico. Cotton is an perennial plant that we force to be an annual. Cotton is traditionally harvested by hand, and then the cotton is ginned--processed to separate the seeds from the fiber. The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. [53][54][55][56][57] For example, improper cropping and irrigation practices have led to desertification in areas of Uzbekistan, where cotton is a major export. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops. At temperatures below 0 Â°C (32 Â°F), rotting of wet cotton stops. Naturally colored cotton can come in red, green, and several shades of brown. Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. [110] Their aim is to sequence the genome of cultivated, tetraploid cotton. The two main species, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum, are genetically very different and probably diverged well before domestication. Cottonwood trees are huge deciduous trees that have large green leaves and thick foliage. Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration.[108]. Part of the difference in size is due to the amplification of retrotransposons (GORGE). In the United States, the state of Texas led in total production as of 2004,[98] while the state of California had the highest yield per acre.[99]. This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. Trees, and all photosynthesizing plants, use the energy of the sun to split atmospheric carbon dioxide into its constituents: oxygen … From the late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname "Cottonopolis" due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. The first medical use of cotton wool was by Sampson Gamgee at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England. The four domesticated Gossypium species of the Malvaceae family are G. arboreum L., domesticated in the Indus Valley of Pakistan and India; G. herbaceum L. from Arabia and Syria; G. hirsutum from Mesoamerica; and G. barbadense from South America. [64] However, a 2009 study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Stanford University and Rutgers University refuted this. The finished product is sent back to India at European shipping rates, once again on British ships. Cotton is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity on 2 different commodity exchanges in the United States of America. Ensminger, Audrey H. and Konlande, James E. This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 09:58. In Africa, cotton is grown by numerous small holders. The 25,000 cotton growers in the United States are heavily subsidized at the rate of $2 billion per year although China now provides the highest overall level of cotton sector support. [26], Under the Mughal Empire, which ruled in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles. This tree is grown widespread across the tropics, so its nativity in Africa is muddy as it was grown as a crop tree. [52] Planting time in spring in the Northern hemisphere varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June. ", "5.2-Market segments-Extra long staple cotton", "Cotton growers must comply with state regulations", "Executive Brief Update 2013: Cotton sector", "Statistical data of top cotton producers", "Three largest producing states of important crops", "Cotton Production and Support in the United States", "Environmental Justice Foundation: Reports on Cotton", NYBOT Cotton#2 Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest, NYMEX Cotton Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest, Transport Information Service (TIS) â€“ Cargo, Packaging, Containers, Loss prevention, Marine insurance, "Monsanto and Illumina Reach Key Milestone in Cotton Genome Sequencing", "Genome sequence of the cultivated cotton, National Cotton Council News and Current Events,, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2012, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles that are too technical from January 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2011, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
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